Self-Reliant Learning Strategy in Vocational and Technical Education: Insights from Group Collaboration

  • Muhammad Abdul Hanif Yussop Politeknik Brunei, Brunei Darussalam
  • Masitah Shahrill Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam
  • Siti Norhedayah Abdul Latif Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam
Keywords: Self-Reliant Learning, Self-Regulation, Independence, Group Work


In this study, a self-reliant learning strategy was used in the teaching and learning of a Mathematics module at a local technical institution to investigate its effectiveness in improving the students' performance in descriptive statistics. This study also examined how group work activity, when integrated with the self-reliant strategy, can contribute to students' development in directing their learning. Forty-two students were observed on how a self-reliant learning strategy affects their performance. It is found that the self-reliant learning strategy had a positive impact on the students' performance in their learning of descriptive statistics and that group work activity improved students' learning skills, especially on planning, monitoring, and evaluating their course of learning on their own. The findings of this study hoped to provide pedagogical alternatives and persuade teachers to consider the self-reliant learning strategy that promotes flexibility in the course of the students' learning.


Download data is not yet available.


Almalki, S. (2016). Integrating quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods research (challenges and benefits). Journal of Education and Learning, 5(3), 288-296. DOI:

Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Self-reliant. In Cambridge Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from

Collins (n.d.). Learning. In Collins Dictionary. Collins. Retrieved from

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2002). Research methods in education. London: Routledge Falmer.

Dignath, C., & Büttner, G. (2018). Teachers’ direct and indirect promotion of self-regulated learning in primary and secondary school mathematics classes–insights from video-based classroom observations and teacher interviews. Metacognition and Learning, 13(2), 127-157. DOI:

Ebil, S. H., Salleh, S. M., & Shahrill, M. (2020). The use of E-portfolio for self-reflection to promote learning: A case of TVET students. Education and Information Technologies, 25(6), 5797-5814. DOI:

Forman, E. A., & Cazden, C. B. (1994). Exploring Vygotskian perspectives in education: The cognitive value of peer interaction. In R. B. Ruddell, M. R. Ruddell, & H. Singer (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (pp. 155-178). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Gneezy, U., Niederle, M., & Rustichini, A. (2003). Performance in competitive environments: Gender differences. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118(3), 1049-1074. DOI:

Hoepfner, H. D., & Koch, H. (2015). Self-reliant learning in technical education and vocational training (TEVT) [Practice and working paper]. Chiang Mai: RAVTE. Retrieved from

Khurshid, F. (2020). Online collaboration and self-regulated learning in online learning environment. Pakistan Journal of Distance and Online Learning, 6(1), 177-193.

Laal, M., Laal, M., & Kermanshahi, Z. K. (2012). 21st-century learning; learning in collaboration. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 1696-1701. DOI:

Lee, E., & Hannafin, M. J. (2016). A design framework for enhancing engagement in student-centered learning: Own it, learn it, and share it. Educational technology research and development, 64(4), 707-734. DOI:

Loyens, S. M., Magda, J., & Rikers, R. M. (2008). Self-directed learning in problem-based learning and its relationships with self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology Review, 20(4), 411-427. DOI:

Marshall, G. (2008). Promoting independent learning by curriculum design and assessment in a taught postgraduate MRI programme. Radiography, 14(3), 238-245. DOI:

Müller, N. M., & Seufert, T. (2018). Effects of self-regulation prompts in hypermedia learning on learning performance and self-efficacy. Learning and Instruction, 58, 1-11. DOI:

Oliver-Hoyo, M., & Allen, D. (2006). The use of triangulation methods in qualitative educational research. Journal of College Science Teaching, 35, 42–47.

Perry, N. E., VandeKamp, K. O., Mercer, L. K., & Nordby, C. J. (2002). Investigating teacher-student interactions that foster self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 37(1), 5-15. DOI:

Pintrich, P. R. (2004). A conceptual framework for assessing motivation and self-regulated learning in college students. Educational Psychology Review, 16(4), 385-407. DOI:

Polgampala, S., Edirisinghe, M. N. S., Sudaraka, G. A. D., & Patabedige, A. S. (2021). Perceptions of participants on online learning in the outbreak of COVID-19: Case study. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences (IRCHSS-2021), University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.

Puddicombe, M. S. (2006). The limitations of planning: The importance of learning. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 132(9), 949-955. DOI:

Stoet, G., & Geary, D. C. (2012). Can stereotype threat explain the gender gap in mathematics performance and achievement? Review of General Psychology, 16(1), 93-102. DOI:

Whitebread, D., Bingham, S., Grau, V., Pasternak, D. P., & Sangster, C. (2007). Development of metacognition and self-regulated learning in young children: Role of collaborative and peer-assisted learning. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 6(3), 433-455. DOI:

How to Cite
Yussop, M. A. H., Shahrill, M., & Abdul Latif, S. N. (2021). Self-Reliant Learning Strategy in Vocational and Technical Education: Insights from Group Collaboration. International Journal of Social Learning (IJSL), 1(3), 283-303.