Factors Influencing Early Retirement Intention of Teacher Leaders in Secondary Schools

  • Norhana bt Mohamad Saad Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Wan Ainul Mardhiah bt Wan Amri Faizal Management and Science University, Malaysia
Keywords: Early Retirement Intention, Teacher Leaders, Contributing Factors

Abstract

The Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) is committed to ensuring that teachers serve until the end of their service. However, there is an increase in the intention for early retirement among teachers. Hence, this study aimed to identify the factors influencing early retirement intention among the teacher leaders of secondary schools. Seven teacher leaders were purposely selected: senior assistants, senior teachers, heads of departments, and heads of six core subjects for Malaysian Certificate Examination from secondary schools in Kelantan, Malaysia. The qualitative data obtained through interviews were analyzed thematically. The findings analysis found eight contributing factors: lack of information technology skills, health problems, role conflict, financially stable, career satisfaction, wanting family time, filling time meaningfully, and venturing into other fields. To reduce the desire for early retirement, this study suggested that relevant partiesrelevant partiesrelevant partiesrelevant partiesrelevant parties should give all factors as contributors attention should give all factors as contributors attention should give all factors as contributors attention should give all factors as contributors attention should give all factors as contributors attention.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Appiah-Agyekum, N.N., Suapin, R.H., & Peprah, S.O. (2013). Determinants of Job Satisfaction among Ghanaian Teachers. Journal of Education and Practice 4(3): 43-50.

Arif, A., Naveed, S., & Aslam, R. (2017). Factors causing stress among Pakistani working women. Pakistan Administrative Review, 1(3), 159-174.

Badun, M., & Smolic, S. (2018). Predictors of early retirement intentions in croatia. 27(4), 671-690. https:// doi.org/10.5559/di.27.4.05.

Banda, M., & Mutambo, P. P. (2016). Sociological perspective of the role of the teacher in the 21st. Century. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education, 3(1), 162-175.

Beehr, T. A. (1986). The process of retirement : a review and recommendations for future. Personnel Psychology, 39, 31-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1986.tb00573.x.

Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design:qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches.(3rd. ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Creswell, J.W. (2014). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Davies, Eleanor M.M., Van der Heijden, Beatrice and Flynn, Matt (2017) Job satisfaction, retirement attitude and intended retirement age: a conditional process analysis across workers’ level of household income. Frontiers in Psychology, 8. ISSN 1664-1078.

Gaillard, M., & Desmette, D. (2008). Intergroup predictors of older workers’ attitudes towards work and early exit. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology,17:4,450-481.

Gardazi, S. F., Mobeen, N., & Gardazi, S. A. A. (2016). Causes of Stress and Burnout among Working Mothers in Pakistan. The Qualitative Report, 21(5), 916-932.

Hobfoll, S. E. (2011). Conservation of resources theory: Its implication for stress, health, and resilience. In S. Folkman (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of stress, health, and coping: 127-147. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Hobfoll, S. E., Halbesleben, J., Neveu, J. P., & Westman, M. (2018). Conservation of resources in the organizational context: The reality of resources and their consequences. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior.

Jabatan Pendidikan Negeri Kelantan. (2018). Unit Pencen.

Mahira Ahmad, Amina Muazzam, Ambreen Anjum, Anna Visvizi & Raheel Nawa, (2020). Linking Work-Family Conflict (WFC) and Talent Management: Insights from a Developing Country. Sustainability, 12, 2861; doi:10.3390/su12072861.

Mansour, S., & Tremblay, D. (2018). What strategy of human resource management to retain older workers? International Journal of Manpower, 40(1), 135 -153.

Maqsood, H., Sohail, T., Quraishi, U., & Kauser, T. (2017). Work-Family conflict, job stress and job satisfaction among teachers. International Journal of Arts and Social sciences, 1(4).

Meng, A., Sundstrup, E., & Andersen, L.L. (2020). Factors Contributing to Retirement Decisions in Denmark: Comparing Employees Who Expect to Retire before, at, and after the State Pension Age. International Journal Environmental of Research and Public Health, 17, 3338; doi:10.3390/ijerph17093338.

NAHT. (2019). About time: life as a middle leader. Downloaded from: https://www.naht.org.uk/_resources/assets/attachment/full/0/94279.pdf.

Naz, S., Fazal, S., & Khan, M. I. (2017). Perceptions of women academics regarding work–life balance: A Pakistan case. Management in Education, 31(2), 88-93.

Prakash, K. C., Oakman, J., Nygard, Clas-Hakan., Siukola, A., Lumme – Sandt, K., Nikonder, P., & Neupane, S. (2019). Intention to retire in employees over 50 years. What is the role of work ability dan work life satisfaction?. International Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 16 (2500). doi10.3390/ijerph16142500.

Public Service Department. (2003). Pekeliling Perkhidmatan Bil 4. Panduan Urusan Persaraan dan Pencen.

Public Service Department. (2018). Data and Statistic.

Riaz, W., Anjum, A., & Anwar, M.U. (2016). A conceptual study and theoretical framework of demographic & attitudinal aspects and their effect on employees turnover & early retirement intentions: a mediating role of organizational commitment. International Journal of African and Asian Studies, 17, 10 - 22.

Siti Aisyah Panatik & Siti Khadijah Zainal Badri. (2012). Konflik kerja keluarga, kesihatan mental dan kecenderungan tukar ganti kerja dalam kalangan guru. Jurnal Teknologi Sains Sosial, 59, 51- 56.

Siti Uzairiah Mohd Tobi. (2017). Kajian kualitatif dan analisis temu bual. Cetakan pertama. Aras Publisher.

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J.C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In Austin, W. and Worche, S. (Eds), The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations, Brooks-Cole, Pacific Grove, 33- 48.

Tippens, A., Ricketts, J.C., Morgan, A. C., Navarro, M., & Flanders, F. B. (2013). Factors related to teachers’ intention to leave the classroom early. Journal of Agricultural Education, 54(4), 58-72.

Topa, G., & Alcover, C. (2015). Psycho social factors in retirement intentions and adjustment: a multi-sample study. Career Development International, 20(4), 384 - 408. doi: 10.1108/ CDI-09-2014-0129.

Topa, G., & Herrador-Alcaide, T. (2016). Procrastination and financial planning for retirement: A moderated mediation analysis. Journal of Neuroscience Psychology and Economics, 9(34), 169-181.

Topa, G., Depolo, M., & Alcover, C. M. (2018). Early retirement: a meta-analysis of its antecedent and subsequent correlates. Frontiers Psychology, 8, 21-57. doi: 10.3389/ fpsyg.2017.02157.

Van Scheers & Wiid (2011). The correlation between educator-turnover and the promotion of efficient management in public schools in Soweto, South Africa. African Journal of Business Management, 5(11), 4071- 4077.

Von Bonsdorff, M. E. (2009). Intentions of early retirement and continuing to work among middle-aged and older employees. (Academic Dissertation). University Printing House.University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.

Von Bonsdorff, M. E. (2016). Early retirement decisions. In S. K. Whitbourne (Eds.). Encyclopedia of adulthood and aging (pp.1242-1246). Wiley-Blackwell. Oxford, UK.

Von Bonsdorff, M. E., Huuhtanen, P., Tuomi, K., & Seitsamo, J. (2010). Predictors of employees’ early retirement intentions: an 11-year longitudinal study. Occupational Medicine, 64, 94-100.

Published
2022-04-06
How to Cite
Norhana bt Mohamad Saad, & Wan Ainul Mardhiah bt Wan Amri Faizal. (2022). Factors Influencing Early Retirement Intention of Teacher Leaders in Secondary Schools . International Journal of Social Learning (IJSL), 2(2), 161-172. https://doi.org/10.47134/ijsl.v2i2.67
Section
Articles