The PBL-STS Model for Achieving Critical Thinking Skills in Elementary School Students
Keywords:Problem-based Learning (PBL), Science, Technology, and Society (STS), Critical Thinking
The research was motivated by the low learning outcomes of students, where as many as 57% of thirty students still needed to achieve the minimum completeness criteria (KKM). Moreover, in practice, the assessment of learning outcomes developed by teachers needs to be oriented toward measuring critical thinking skills. This study aims to describe the effectiveness of the Problem-based Learning (PBL) model with the integrated pattern of Science, Technology, and Society (STS) education in fourth-grade elementary school students. In this study, Borg and Gall's development research model was used, a process carried out to produce and test an educational product. The results showed (1) Each statement, both positive and negative statements, obtained an average percentage of 85.4% and was declared good; and (2) the average pretest score was only 32.7 and increased after the PBL-STS model was applied with a posttest score of 83.3. The average n-gain value obtained is 0.75 and is included in the high category. In addition, the significance value (2-tailed) is 0.00 <0.05, so the application of the PBL-STS model has a significant effect on the achievement of learning objectives (students' critical thinking skills learning outcomes), or is accepted.
Akker, J. an van den, Branch, R. M., Gustafson, K., Nieveen, N., & Plomp, T. (1999). Design approaches and tools in education and training. Netherlands: Springer-Science + Business Media Dordrecht.
Anugraheni & Indri. (2018). A meta-analysis of problem-based learning models in increasing critical thinking skills in elementary schools. Polyglot: Journal of Language, Literature, Culture, and Education.
Arrieta. (2021). Curriculum evaluation: inputs for principal’s instructional leadership. IJSL: International Journal of Social, Learning. https://doi.org/10.47134/ijsl.v1i2.45.
Aryulina & Riyanto. (2016). A problem-based learning model in biology education courses to develop inquiry teaching competency of preservice teachers. Cakrawala Pendidikan: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan. https://doi.org/10.21831/cp.v1i1.8364.
Batlolona & Souisa. (2020). Problem-based learning: students’ mental models on water conductivity concept. IJERE: International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education. http://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v9i2.20468.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. USA & Canada: Routledge.
Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., & Borg, W. R. (2003). Educational research: an introduction seventh edition. New York: Pearson Education.
Hinton, P. R. (2004). Statistics are explained the second edition. USA & Canada: Routledge.
Huber & Kuncel. (2016). Does college teach critical thinking? A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654315605917.
Khoiri, Sugandi, & Siswanto. (2022). The validity of the sustainability-based argument-driven inquiry to improve students' critical thinking skills. Gagasan Pendidikan Indonesia. http://dx.doi.org/10.30870/gpi.v3i1.15115.
Kilbane, C. R., & Milman, N. B. (2014). Teaching models designing instruction for 21st-century learners. New York: Pearson Education.
Kumar, D. D., & Chubin, D. E. (2000). science, technology, and society, a sourcebook on research and practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
Marthaliakirana, Suwono, Saefi, & Gofur. (2022). Problem-based learning with metacognitive prompts for enhancing argumentation and critical thinking of secondary school students. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/12304.
Marzuki & Basariah. (2017). The influence of problem-based learning and project citizen model in civic education learning on students' critical thinking ability and self-discipline. Cakrawala Pendidikan: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan. https://doi.org/10.21831/cp.v36i3.14675.
Nazwar, Rahman, & Rahman. (2023). Pengaruh kemampuan berpikir kritis terhadap kemampuan literasi sains siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri 7 kota ternate pada konsep getaran dan gelombang dengan menggunakan model pembelajaran discovery learning. Saintifik@: Jurnal Pendidikan MIPA. http://dx.doi.org/10.33387/sjk.v8i.6218.
Nuswowati, Susilaningsih, Ramlawati, & Kadarwati. (2017). Implementation of problem-based learning with green chemistry vision to improve creative thinking skills and students' creative actions. JPI: Jurnal Pendidikan IPA International Journal of Science Education. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpii.v6i2.9467.
Permatasari, Gunarhadi, & Riyadi. (2019). The influence of problem-based learning towards social science learning outcomes viewed from learning interest. IJERE: International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education. http://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v8i1.15594.
Permendikbud Number 20 of 2016. About Competency Standards for Elementary and Secondary Education Graduates.
Permendikbud Number 103 of 2014. Regarding Learning in Elementary Education and Secondary Education.
Pramasdyahsari, Setyawati, Aini, Nusuki, Arum, Astutik, Widodo, Zuliah, & Salmah. (2023). Fostering students' mathematical critical thinking skills on number patterns through the digital book STEM PjBL. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/13342.
Puspitasari, J. et al. (2022). Smartphone Learning Media Prototype Model Based on SAC (Smart Apps Creator) For 4.0 Learning. IJSL: International Journal of Social Learning, 3 (1), 31-47.
Suryawati, Suzanti, Zulfarina, Putriana, & Febrianti. (2020). The implementation of local environmental problem-based learning student worksheets to strengthen environmental literacy. JPI: Jurnal Pendidikan IPA International Journal of Science Education. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpii.v9i2.22892.
Triswahyono, Sukartiningsih, & Hermanto. (2019). Improving critical thinking of elementary school students using problem-based learning models. Al-Ishlah: Jurnal Pendidikan. https://doi.org/10.35445/alishlah.v13i3.682.
Utomo, Hasruddin, & Murad. (2020). Influence of problem-based learning models (PBL) and learning motivation to learn outcomes and student's critical thinking skills themes of caring for life in class iv primary school no 026609 Pujidadi brinjal. Birle-Journal: Budapest International Research and Critics in Linguistics and Education. https://doi.org/10.33258/birle.v3i4.1300.
Zarvianti & Sahida. (2020). Designing comics by using problem-based learning (PBL) to improve student's creative thinking skills. IJSL: International Journal of Social, Learning. https://doi.org/10.47134/ijsl.v1i1.8.
Ziman, J. M. (1980). Teaching and learning about science and society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.