Narrative Study of Teaching Strategies and Challenges Encountered by Teachers in Synchronous Online Classes
The COVID-19 pandemic urged a dramatic shift in the educational landscape, whereby digital platforms are utilized in teaching and learning. This new setup has posed challenges in teaching mathematics; hence, this study was conceptualized to explore the different teaching strategies and challenges math teachers encountered in their synchronous online classes (SOC). It aimed to draw analysis and increased understanding of the experiences related to teaching strategies and challenges, focusing on two essential aspects of teaching and learning: content and student engagement. Online in-depth interviews involving nine (9) Junior High School mathematics teachers of a private academic institution in Southern Luzon were conducted for data gathering. Results depict two significant themes as the participants' strategies in their SOC: teacher-directed instruction and motivational strategies.Meanwhile, three major themes emerged as challenges encountered by the participants: the role of the teacher, time constraints, and students' responsiveness. Findings suggest that some of the difficulties in synchronous online teaching may have resulted from the tendency to replicate face-to-face teaching in a virtual classroom and lack of technological proficiency. Hence, opportunities to enhance teachers’ knowledge and skills in digital pedagogies and more student-centered online teaching approaches can be a gateway to address the challenges posed.
Borba, M.C., Askar, P., Engelbrecht, J., Gadanidis, G., Salvador, L. & Aguilar, M. (2016). Blended learning, e-learning and mobile learning in mathematics education. ZDM Mathematics Education 48, 589–610. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-016-0798-4.
Correia, A. P., North, C. A., Korkmaz, C., Simmerman, V., & Wallace, K. B. (2019). Authentic online discussions: A narrative inquiry into sharing leadership and facilitation among teachers and students. International Journal on E-Learning: Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education, 18(2), 165–189. https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/183942/.
Cowger, T., & Tritz, J. (2019). Narrative analysis research: a tool for extension educators. The Journal of Extension, 57(6). https://joe.org/joe/2019december/tt5.php.
Creswell, J.W. and Poth, C.N. (2018) Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design Choosing among Five Approaches. 4th Edition, SAGE Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks.
Department of Education (June 19, 2020). DepEd Order No. 012, s 2020: Adoption of the basic education learning continuity plan for school year 2020 - 2021 in light of the covid-19 public health emergency. https://www.deped.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/DO_s2020_012.pdf.
Farmer and West (2019). Exploring the concerns of Online K-12 teachers. Journal of Online Learning Research, 5(1), 97-118. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1208818.pdf.
Firdaus, F. H. (2015). Teacher praises and students’ engagement in EFL classroom ( A case study of seventh grade students at one of junior high school in Bandung ). Journal of English and Education, 3(2), 28–40. https://ejournal.upi.edu/index.php/L-E/article/view/4761/3320.
Gallant, G. (2020). Collaborative learning approaches and the integration of collaborative learning tools. In Integration of Instructional Design and Technology to Support Rapid Change. Power Learning Solutions. https://idandrapidchange.pressbooks.com/chapter/collaborative- learning-approaches-and-the-integration-of-collaborative-learning-tools/.
Gemmell, I., Sandars, J., Taylor, S., & Reed, K. (2011). Teaching science and technology via online distance learning: The experience of teaching biostatistics in an online Master of Public Health programme. Open Learning, 26(2), 165–171. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680513.2011.567756.
Gherhes, V., Simon, S., & Para, I. (2021) Analysing students’ reasons for keeping their webcams on or off during Online Classes. Sustainability, 13(3203). https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063203.
Gray, J. A., & DiLoreto, M. (2016). The Effects of student engagement, student satisfaction, and perceived learning in online learning environments. NCPEA International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 11(1), 98–119. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1103654.pdf.
Guerrero, A.J. (2020). E-Learning in the teaching of mathematics: an educational experience in adult high school. Mathematics, 8(5), 840. https://doi.org/10.3390/math8050840.
Herodotou, C., Sharples, M., Gaved, M., Kukulska-Hulme, A., Rienties, B., Scanlon, E. & Whitelock, D. (2019). Innovative pedagogies of the future: an evidence-based selection. Frontiers in Education. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2019.00113.
Huang, D., & Manouchehri, A. (2019). Online mathematics teacher education in the US: a status report. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 19(2). https://citejournal.org/volume-19/issue-2-19/mathematics/online-mathematics-teacher- education-in-the-us-a-status-report.
Kebritchi, M., Lipschuetz, A., & Santiague, L. (2017). Issues and challenges for teaching successful online courses in higher education: a literature review. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 46, 4-29. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047239516661713.
Kyei-Blankson, L., Ntuli, E., & Donnelly, H. (2016). Establishing the importance of interaction and presence to student learning in online environments. World Journal of Educational Research, 3(1), 48. https://doi.org/10.22158/wjer.v3n1p48.
Li, J., Wong, S. C., Yang, X. & Bell, A. (2020). Using feedback to promote student participation in online learning programs: evidence from a quasi-experimental study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68, 485-510. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-019- 09709-9.
Licorish, S. , Owen, H., Daniel, B. K. & George, J. L. (2018) Students’ perception of Kahoot!’s influence on teaching and learning. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41039-018-0078-8.
Lukenchuk, A. (2016). Themes at the intersections of theory and practice in online and blended education. Distance Education, 37(1), 130–136. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2016.1158771.
McCombs, B. (2015). Learner-centered online instruction. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2015(144), 57–71. https://doi.org/10.1002/tl.20163.
Perrotta, K., & Bohan, C. H. (2020). A reflective study of online faculty teaching experiences in higher education [Un estudio reflexivo de las experiencias docentes en línea en la educación superior]. Journal of Effective Teaching in Higher Education, 3(1), 50–66. https://jethe.org/index.php/jethe/article/view/9/30.
Seifert, K., & Sutton, R. (2021, February 22). Teacher-Directed Instruction. Retrieved July 29, 2021, from https://socialsci.libretexts.org/@go/page/10873.
Shanmugavelu, G., Ariffin, K., Vadivelu, M., Mahayudin, Z. & Sundaram, M. A. (2020). Questioning techniques and teachers’ role in the classroom. Shanlax International Journal of Education, 8(4), 45-49. https://doi.org/10.34293/ education.v8i4.3260.
Smiderle, R., Rigo, S.J., Marques, L.B., Coelho, J. & Jaques, P. (2020) The impact of gamification on students ’learning, engagement and behavior based on their personality traits. Smart Learning Environment, 7(3). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-019-0098-x.
Sun, A., & Chen, X. (2016). Online education and its effective practice: a research review. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 15, 157-190. http://www.informingscience.org/Publications/3502.
Trenholm, S., Alcock, L., & Robinson, C. (2016). The instructor experience of fully online tertiary mathematics: A challenge and an opportunity. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 47(2), 147–161. https://doi.org/10.5951/jresematheduc.47.2.0147.
Trenholm, S., Peschke, J., & Chinnappan, M. (2019). A review of fully online undergraduate mathematics instruction through the lens of large-scale research (2000-2015). PRIMUS, 29(10), 1080–1100. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511970.2018.1472685.
Vilardi, R., & Rice, M. L. (2014). Mathematics achievement: Traditional instruction and technology-assisted course delivery methods. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 13(1). https://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/pdf/13.1.2.pdf.
Wen-Chi, V., Chen Hsieh, J. S., & Yang, J. C. (2017). Creating an online learning community in a flipped classroom to enhance EFL learners’ oral proficiency. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 20(2), 142-157. https://search.proquest.com/ docview/1902838377?accountid=147155.
Yang D. (2017). Instructional strategies and course design for teaching statistics online: perspectives from online students. International Journal of STEM education, 4(1), 34. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40594-01.